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U.S. Occupation of Haiti (1915).

Pictorial Preparation & Narration by Frankie Morone.
Some of these pictures were taken by a U.S. Marine named: Raymond. Apparently he was a freelance photographer and he developed his own films.One can notice his name on the negative of his pictures.

Following the instability and the brutal murder of President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, the U.S. intervened in Haiti in 1915, with a huge armed force to restore order. Many American officials then believed that the U.S. was going to help in the peaceful governance of the country because Haitians were unable to govern themselves. One more reason was to protect the lives and properties of Americans and foreigners living there. The U.S. was also concerned by the possible involvement of Germany, France or England over Haiti.

By 1916, Haiti was a protectorate of the U.S. Once there, the Americans changed the Constitution that forbade foreigners to own land in Haiti. With this clause, much of the land were either sold or given to Americans. Furthermore, elections now became fraudulent. Dartignave was litterally hand picked by Caperton over Dr. R. Bobo and J.N. Leger. The Haitian Senate was dissolved, treaties were passed by force, martial law was declared and the press was censored. Once there, the Americans controlled everything except education and the judicial system.

The Marines came to Haiti in 1915 with preconceived ideas about the country’s capacity for self-government. In addition, there were many racial misconceptions towards Haiti. Once there, Admiral Caperton ruled by coercion and physical intimidation. Haitians were barred from the higher offices in the administration, which were taken by Americans.

Haitians were determined to keep their independence. They were very protective over their sovereignty. Rebels called “Cacaos” by the Americans vehemently tried to resist American control of Haiti. Some sources suggest that close to 3000 Haitians were killed defending their nation against the occupants.

However by 1934, Stenio Vincent had one dream in mind: the inoccupation of Haiti. He succeeded in achieving that goal. The U.S. left thinking they had implemented peace and security in the Caribbean nation of Haiti. Beneath the surface lied resentment against the American occupation. As Dantes Bellgarde puts it, “Haiti does not have peace. Peace, real peace is not material order imposed by the force of bayonets.”
Haiti’s subsequent governments (Lescot, Estimé) fell under protest by the masses .Then the army intervened and put a new president. That culminated into the Duvalier’s lengthy dictatorship. After his reign, the following leaders were quite unsuccessful, for they were violently overthrown, resigned or forced into exile. Today, Haiti is in total chaos.

This presidential parade Haiti is witnessing is clear evidence that the occupation failed to teach and give Haiti the tools to maintain a democracy. Instead it championed military might, formed dictators and ultimately reinforced the idea that power comes from the hand holding a gun.

  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    3 months ago
    Merisier Jeannis, un des chefs Cacos
    Mwen rele Marjorie Jeannis. Papa'm ce Marcel Silvance Jeannis. Mwen ne Portland, Oregon. Mwen gen deux petite. Anael Trent Jeannis et Junel Jeannis Ostin. Tou les deux petite'm nan musique. Dieu te tout la famille Jeannis.
    • (Anonymously) (Private)
      3 months ago
      Pardon - Dieu te benis tout la famille Jeannis
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    2 years 7 months ago
    Un coin de Port-au-Prince (ca.1915)
    Je déplore profondément le manque de rigueur que vous montrez sur ce site si important. Vous ne vous donnez pas la peine de lire sur ce qui est écrit sur la photo même qui dit "une Croix dans la région de Croix des Bouquets, Haïti. et vous, vous écrivez comme légende au bas de la photo (un coin de Port-au-Prince) Avouez que ce n'est pas sérieux. Vous avez commis la même erreur avec Mérisier Jeannis que vous présentez comme un chef Caco de L'Artibonite alors qu'il fut un homme de Jacmel.
    L'histoire est trop sérieuse pour qu'elle soit traitée avec cette désinvolture, ce laxisme. Je souhaite vivement que vous resaisissiez et prendrez les dispositions nécessaires pour éviter, le mieux possible, de telles erreurs.
  • Joel Dure (Private)
    3 years 9 months ago
    This is from 1916
    Ces deux femmes haitiennes et leurs anes me pansent les plaies nostalgiques.
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    5 years 3 months ago
    Merisier Jeannis, un des chefs Cacos
    MounJacmel  mwen ye
     
    M konn fanmi an byen.   gen guy;   gen abel; te gen roland ak elza; tout se pitit pitit pitit merisier jeanis
    M sezi lè m wè foto a la a.
     
    Misye te yon gran tèt.  Tonton m te toujou ap rakonte m kouman misye te pran Florvil Hyppolite.  Merisier te ap jwe kat epi Florvil te nan wout sou chwal li ap vin jakmèl. M kwè Merisier te anba yon pye mango epi yon fèy mango sot tombe sou kat li a; epi l di ah  m pran vagabon an!!  Si m pa trouble m m kwè Florvil Hyppolite mouri etan sou wout Jacmel la.
     
      
    • (Anonymously) (Private)
      4 years 5 months ago
      florvil hyppolite est mort a Port-au-Prince
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    4 years 7 months ago
    Navire Americain : Connecticut ayant à son bord l'amiral Caperton
    C'est pas correct. L'Amiral Caperton se trouvait dans le USS Washington

  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    4 years 11 months ago
    Dr. Rosalvo Bobo
    Thank you for your hard work on behalf of the Haitian people 
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    4 years 11 months ago
    Dr. Rosalvo Bobo
    May you great man be in peace in heaven
  • ruth (Private)
    5 years 7 months ago
    S.Dartiguenave is my great grandfather.there are so many opinions of him.I still look for information about
    him.my grandmother odile married his son.she died in '95.my mom died in'89.I have one aunt tha I can ask the history of where I came from.
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    5 years 1 month ago
    Des pauvres et innocentes haitiennes posant avec les Marines (ca.1916)
    ELLE MERITE UNE EVALUATION SOCIALE. LES VETEMENTS DES FEMMES SONT JUSTE A COTE. UN HOMME, PROBABLEMENT UN HAITIEN TRES BIEN MIS (CHEF DE SECTION, SPECULATEUR DE CAFE, GRAND PLANTEUR?). SA FAMILLE? QUE FONT LES MARINES DANS CETTE LOCALITE ET OU EST-ELLE SITUE?
  • OTTO JEANNIS (Private)
    8 years 10 months ago
    Merisier Jeannis, un des chefs Cacos
    MERISIER JEANNIS , FROM TO SOUTHEAST OF HAITI (JACMEL ) . HE IS MY GREAT GRANDFATHER, IM ONE OF BERNIER JEANNIS GRANDSON . IF YOU READ THE END OF GOVENMENT FLOVIL HYPPOLITE IN STORY BOOK OF HAITI . YOU WILL KNOW ABOUT HIS FIGTH AGAINS PRESIDENT F. HYPPOLITE .
    • Tatiana Jean (Private)
      7 years 2 months ago
      Oui les Jeannis sont de Jacmel. Mais ils sont peu nombreux.
      • 6 years 4 months ago
        We are from Jacmel
        • (Anonymously) (Private)
          5 years 4 months ago
          eske se pitit madan Jeannis ou ye?
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    7 years 10 months ago
    Louis Borno (1922- 1930)
    We the ancestors of Louis Borno wish to take this time to salute the people of Haiti. May God be with you all at this time and beyond in rebuilding our country.
    The Borno's
    • (Anonymously) (Private)
      5 years 5 months ago
      As a descendent of Louis Borno, not an ancestor, it's cool to be alive
      and well, and that his legacy lives on to this day with Mr. Martelly and
      the Government of Haiti. Thank you very much! may undefined royalty
      lead the way to a great Global Union. May the Court be together soon.
      May the days of 2012 go by quick! "Patience, is the mother of all
      virtues" - and Forgetfulness is the father of all virtues. Yet allowance
      too, is the sister perhaps. And intelligence, the brother. Just a
      thought I may be way wrong with the family that's for Haiti to figure
      out!

      • Henri (Private)
        5 years 5 months ago
        So much oil in Haiti it's amazing.
        • Henri Borno (Private)
          5 years 5 months ago
          • (Anonymously) (Private)
            5 years 5 months ago
            I think it's an implication of Haiti even if the flag looks different. What about a shovel in the middle ?
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    5 years 9 months ago
    Drapeau Haitien
    Je suis Haitienne, je vis maintenant en europe specialement a Lyon j'aime beaucoup mon pays et mon drapeau.Pour moi c'est le plus beau flag du monde.
  • 5 years 11 months ago
    Merisier Jeannis, un des chefs Cacos
    well,that's why we shouldn't forget kalafon,lan vout,unesco,and so many other places where the ancestors live their daily life,on the first of november the brother of my deceased mother held a mass to rekindle as he does every year the rememberance of those who paved the way for us so their names shouldn't be forgotten.As my mother,Edith Jeannis,was struggling with leukemia in New Jersey,you couldn't tell her not to think of the lafon she loved so dearly and ask for all the relatives that would spring up in her mind and of their daily progretions.So,now that she gone that fire is still within me,so that's why i'm asking relatives wheter it's New york,New Jersey,Boston,Miami,Atlanta or any where else you are living to remember that's the roots are still with you.
  • (Anonymously) (Private)
    6 years ago
    Charlemagne Péralte
    Un brave mais pas un sage.  La recompense d'un hero face a une force dominante est la mort. Sa resistance a coute la vie a beaucoup d'haitiens et n'a pas pu arreter l'invasion americaine.